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The information used to support management decisions, Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries: revisiting the assumptions. Concussion is a common condition that is often misdiagnosed and therefore mistreated.

caring for breast cancer survivors should address survivorship issues related to hypoestrogenism. Context Matters: Exploring the Cost-effectiveness of Fixed Payments and Procurement Auctions for PES. 2014). Therefore, it is not surprising that it has been difficult to muster the resources necessary for building a solid evidence base. A review of global-local-global linkages in economic land-use/cover change models. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis can be challenging and needs a high index of suspicion, and a correct sequence of diagnostic testing. The second implication relates to choosing the appropriate scale of analysis. Furthermore, we need to know how these policies compare in their effect on human and environmental outcomes, and how these instruments work in policy mixes (Barton et al. 2014). Ignoring spillover effects will bias estimates of program impact. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a type of supraventricular arrhythmia, wherein the disease process increases the risk of thromboembolism. A Tentative Theory of Change to Evaluate Jurisdictional Approaches to Reduced Deforestation. An investigation of the effects of conservation incentive programs on management of invasive species by private landowners. Reconciling multiple counterfactuals when evaluating biodiversity conservation impact in social‐ecological systems. Conversely, coarse resolutions may fail to capture local processes and inhibit the identification of appropriate controls.

Many compelling reasons motivate impact evaluations of conservation policy instruments.

Impact evaluation has developed into a research discipline with multiple fields of application including health, education, and development (White 2009).

Plan S and publishing: reply to Lehtomäki et al.

It also might be easier to randomize over enforcement than over the placement of protected areas, or it might be possible to randomize over the type of PES contract needed to induce changes in household behavior.

For more information, visit, or follow us on Twitter @McDonalds and Facebook # #. Evaluating approaches for scaling‐up community‐based marine‐protected areas into socially equitable and ecologically representative networks. 2015).

Such partnerships should be maintained over time to facilitate continuous feedbacks between evaluation, design protocols and criteria, and implementation practice, which all should be flexible, adaptive, and responsive to assessment outcomes (Sims et al. Understanding why conservation programs succeed or fail is essential for designing cost‐effective initiatives and for improving the livelihoods of natural resource users. The evidence base we advocate for is a global public good. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Information included at this site has been derived directly from the Pennsylvania Code, the Commonwealth's official publication of rules and regulations and from the Pennsylvania Bulletin, the Commonwealth's official gazette for information and rulemaking The elephant (head) in the room: A critical look at trophy hunting. The perspectives put forward in this article are based on discussions among scientists and practitioners who attended the workshop “Evaluating Forest Conservation Initiatives: New Tools and Policy Needs” on 10–12 December 2013, in Barcelona, Spain. In this article, we propose steps toward mainstreaming and improving conservation policy impact evaluation. Several implications arise for the design of impact evaluations and the effective integration of evaluation results in a “conservation policy research cycle,” where the knowledge base is continuously updated as new evidence emerges. While clinical findings are considered the primary factor in differentiating subtypes of dementia, Do forest-management plans and FSC certification help avoid deforestation in the Congo Basin?. Ideally, theories and related evaluation methods would address both potential sources of spillovers, behavioral and mechanistic, since the existence of either should be part of the estimated treatment effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Fellow divers may be placed in jeopardy trying to rescue a disabled diver and expensive use of medical facilities and personnel are required to care for injured divers. To obtain these insights, impact evaluations must be more than abstract quantitative evaluations but rather build on qualitative theories of change which help identify the conditions in which the desired impacts arise (Morgan & Winship 2007). A Review of Field Experiments in Planning and Urban Research. We characterize the current barriers and propose elements of a strategy that may build a systematic body of evidence on the effectiveness of conservation initiatives.

Reassessing the forest impacts of protection: the challenge of nonrandom location and a corrective method, Realizing an effectiveness revolution in environmental management, Non‐linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection, Effectiveness and synergies of policy instruments for land use governance in tropical regions, Design alternatives for evaluating the impact of conservation projects, Forest transition in Vietnam and displacement of deforestation abroad, Evaluation of biodiversity policy instruments: what works and what doesn't, Counterfactuals and causal inference: methods and principles for social research, A newly discovered wildlife migration in Namibia and Botswana is the longest in Africa, Land‐use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon, Making two parallel land‐use sector debates meet: carbon leakage and indirect land‐use change, Protecting forests, biodiversity, and the climate: predicting policy impact to improve policy choice, Park location affects forest protection: land characteristics cause differences in park impacts across Costa Rica, Realising the potential of environmental data: a call for systematic review and evidence synthesis in environmental management, Human well‐being impacts of terrestrial protected areas, Contagious development: neighbor interactions in deforestation, Assessing the social impacts of conservation policies: rigour versus practicality, Effects of Decentralized Forest Management (DFM) on Deforestation and Poverty in Low and Middle Income Countries: a systematic review, Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program, Theory‐based impact evaluation: principles and practice. The solution is not found in selecting fine‐grained analytical units because high resolutions will generate spatial correlations that bias results. Exploring connections among the multiple outputs and outcomes emerging from 25 years of sea turtle conservation in Northern Cyprus. McDonald's USA, LLC, serves a variety of menu options made with quality ingredients to more than 27 million customers every day. It is critical that physicians be aware of these side effects, know which patients are at greatest risk and which patients should avoid these medications, as well as understand best practices for prescribing NSAIDS. To do so, they need to be able to identify potential victims and have knowledge of legal and social services. This post was contributed by a community member. They have a significant side effect profile which impacts major organ systems including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal.

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The evidence we seek can be generated with modern impact evaluation designs. 2014). Technological advances have occurred rapidly in radiotherapy, and modern techniques Qualitative impact evaluation of a social marketing campaign for conservation. Conservation programs have features that, while not unique to conservation, translate into specific challenges for impact evaluation. Since social and ecological processes operate at multiple scales, any single choice of scale will inevitably fail to capture certain dynamics. A framework to guide strategic conservation investments.

Our arguments are based on discussions from the workshop “Evaluating Forest Conservation Initiatives: New Tools and Policy Needs” organized in Barcelona, Spain in December 2013.

Deforestation on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi and the loss of primate habitat. Randomization may also be used when a program is thought to work, and program managers would like to test variations of the program or specific aspects of its mechanism to identify why and how the program produces the desired results. Systematic reviews and systematic maps (or evidence gap maps) are a useful tool to synthesize scientific results and identify shortfalls for policy makers (Dicks et al. Protected areas to deliver biodiversity need effectiveness and equity. Meanwhile, recommendations of acute management and options

It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the prevalence of domestic violence and become familiar with appropriate screening and referral tools in order to identify victims and provide resources. 2011; Gaveau et al. A quantitative framework for evaluating the impact of biodiversity offset policies. 2013). Empowering impact assessments knowledge and international research collaboration - A bibliometric analysis of Environmental Impact Assessment Review journal.

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