Schools of jujutsu with long lineages include: Aikido is a modern martial art developed primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s by Morihei Ueshiba from the system of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu. Some define jujutsu and similar arts rather narrowly as "unarmed" close combat systems used to defeat or control an enemy who is similarly unarmed. , Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, and to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual.. Many of the potentially dangerous techniques such as scissor takedowns, necklocks and digital choking and locking are prohibited in sport jujutsu. A winner was decided by submission, unconsciousness, or even death of an opponent. He also sits on the governing boards of several international martial arts organizations. Defensive tactics included blocking, evading, off-balancing, blending and escaping.  Lewis died in 2012.  Similar evidence of warfare has been found in Epipalaeolithic to early Neolithic era mass burials, excavated in Germany and at Jebel Sahaba in Northern Sudan. Parker based his system on Chow's Chinese Kenpo Karate. Amongst these are transcriptions of Johannes Liechtenauer's mnemonic poem on the longsword dating back to the late fourteenth century. However, judo retained the full set of choking and strangling techniques for its sporting form and all manner of joint locks. It is a common occurrence for matches to last for hours.  Robert Trias was the first American to open a karate dojo in the United States. Less-practised stand-up techniques in Gracie jiujitsu survive in some BJJ clubs from its judo and jujutsu heritage (judo throws, knife defense, gun defense, blocking, striking etc.). Today, the systems of unarmed combat that were developed and practiced during the Muromachi period (1333–1573) are referred to collectively as Japanese old-style jujutsu (日本古流柔術, Nihon koryū jūjutsu). Basic methods of attack include hitting or striking, thrusting or punching, kicking, throwing, pinning or immobilizing, strangling, and joint locking. A Combat sport, also known as a Combative sport, is a competitive contact sport where two combatants fight against each other using certain rules of engagement (usually significantly different from the rules in simulated combats meant for practice or challenge in martial arts), typically with the aim of simulating parts of real hand to hand combat. , Karate experienced an explosion of popularity in the 1970s and 1980s thanks to such movies as The Karate Kid. Martial arts can also be linked with religion and spirituality. Protective equipment for sparring and competition includes boxing gloves, headgear and mouthguards. Brazilian jiu-jitsu and judo matches do not allow striking, but are full-contact in the sense that full force is applied in the permitted grappling and submission techniques. , However, one of the major criticism of martial arts teaching in the United States, is the common practice in American of teaching primarily for profit, at the expense of good quality self-defense instruction.  The earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the 3rd millennium BC.. Following the "kung fu wave" in Hong Kong action cinema in the 1970s, a number of mainstream films produced during the 1980s contributed significantly to the perception of martial arts in western popular culture. He also founded an eclectic style named Bartitsu which combined jujutsu, judo, wrestling, boxing, savate and stick fighting. Western interest in Asian martial arts arises towards the end of the 19th century, due to the increase in trade between the United States with China and Japan.  There were also numerous fraudulent ads for martial arts training programs, inserted into comic books circa the 1960s and 1970s, which were read primarily by adolescent boys.. During the World War II era William E. Fairbairn and Eric A. Sykes were recruited by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to teach their martial art of defendu (itself drawing on Western boxing and jujutsu) and pistol shooting to UK, US, and Canadian special forces. The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) was the official organization responsible for the running of all amateur sports in the United States, established in 1888. They included Jhoon Rhee, Henry Cho, Kim Soo, and Jack Hwang. However, many modern-day jujutsu schools include striking, both as a set-up for further techniques or as a stand-alone action. In Europe, the earliest sources of martial arts traditions date to Ancient Greece. Fencing and Greco-Roman wrestling was included in the 1896 Summer Olympics. Samoz combined jujutsu with wrestling, boxing, and savate techniques for extreme street situations. Modern mixed martial arts competitions are similar to the historic Greek Olympic sport of pankration and allow a wide range of both striking and grappling techniques. episode "Martial Arts" (June 2010).  World Judo Championships have been held since 1956, Judo at the Summer Olympics was introduced in 1964. Competitions held by World Taekwondo requires the use of Headgear and padded vest, but are full contact in the sense that full force is applied to strikes to the head and body, and win by knockout is possible. In spite of the presence of these Asian instructors, karate was primarily spread in the early days by American-born teachers. After Carlos learned the art from Ferro and Maeda, he passed his knowledge to his brothers Oswaldo, Gastão Jr., and George. Sometimes, schools or styles are introduced by individual teachers or masters, or as a brand name by a specific gym.
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